tl;dr: You can have Nginx with Shibboleth. Rebuild Shibboleth with FastCGI support, and recompile Nginx with a custom module: You can now run the Shibboleth FastCGI authorizer and responder applications and successfully authenticate!

Full information on how to include the ngnix-http-shibboleth custom module with Nginx are provided on GitHub.  This repository now serves as the canonical place for all documentation in this space.